Our culture encourages external validation. School grades, better degrees, promotion, pay rises, likes. It reinforces a dependency on other people, and often people we would not choose to be dependent on. Its opposite is internal validation. The stuff of soul and self. The warmth that is generated from doing things we love, that we areContinue reading “Sawubona”

Gradually, then Suddenly

“How did you go bankrupt?Two ways. Gradually, then Suddenly.” Ernest Hemingway. The Sun Also Rises Any of us who have been involved in a failed venture will identify with this. Things happen at the edges, small at first. They happen in several areas, still small, but becoming slightly bigger and more numerous. None big enoughContinue reading “Gradually, then Suddenly”


I find it an attractive word. With its origin in Anglo Saxon, it is normally used in terms of weight, or effort but there is another very specific use in terms of animals and people, hefted, which is used to describe the relationship between them and the land they live on. Hefted flocks are thoseContinue reading “Heft”